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Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus)

The following has been adapted from original text by Stephen F. Newton, Kate Thompson and P. Ian Mitchell in Seabird Populations of Britain and Ireland (with permission from A&C Black, London).

 

Manx shearwaters spend most of the year at sea returning to land only to breed. They nest in burrows and under boulders, and come ashore only under the hours of darkness in order to evade predators such as great skuas and great black-backed gulls. They breed exclusively on islands, usually free of rats Rattus sp. that depredate eggs, chicks and adults. Manx shearwaters were believed to have been exterminated from their eponymous colony on the Calf of Man by the introduction of rats from a wrecked ship in the late 18th Century. More recently rats and cats Felis catus were responsible for the extirpation of Manx shearwaters from Canna (Lochaber). Those few colonies that occur on islands with rats are generally small and limited in distribution. The exception is on Rum (Lochaber), where the largest single colony in the world coexists with rats, though there is evidence that deleterious impacts are occurring. Coexistence has been allowed by shearwaters nesting on the slopes of the island's mountains at altitudes of more than 450 m – higher than rats normally occur, though milder winters in recent years may be increasing the habitable range of rats into the shearwaters' range. 

Most of the estimated world population of c. 340,000–410,000 pairs of Manx shearwaters breed in Britain and Ireland. Of the UK population, 40% breed on Rum, and 50% in Pembrokeshire on the adjacent islands of Skomer, Skokholm and Middleholm (all Dyfed).

Conservation status

Manx shearwater is currently identified as a conservation priority in the following:

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International importance

UK Population

Biogeographic Population

% World Population

299,700 AOS*

n/a

79.9

* AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

The UK population figure (rounded to the nearest hundred) was derived from data in Mitchell, P.I., Newton, S.F., Ratcliffe, N. and Dunn, T.E. (eds.) 2004. Seabird Populations of Britain and Ireland. Poyser, London. This was also the source of figures for the Biogeographic and World populations.

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UK population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

Manx shearwaters' nocturnal and subterranean habits have caused problems for surveyors in the past. Hence, Operation Seafarer and the SCR Census' estimates of 175,000–300,000 pairs and 250,000–300,000 pairs respectively were based solely on order of magnitude estimates and should not be compared to results obtained during Seabird 2000 which represent the first attempt to survey and quantify accurately the number of Manx shearwaters breeding in the UK. Surveyors used tape-playback which involved playing calls of Manx shearwaters to elicit a response from adults occupying burrows during the day. Unfortunately, not all adults present at a colony will respond to the taped calls, thus counts of responses will underestimate numbers and therefore have to be adjusted by a response rate measured at the colony. Some colonies were also surveyed by counting burrow entrances that had visible signs of use, though this method is difficult or impossible to use in colonies that are shared with other burrowers (i.e. rabbits and Atlantic puffins), or where burrow entrances are obscured (i.e. under boulders or in thick vegetation).

The main gaps in survey coverage in the UK were in the Northern Isles (where only relict populations remain), Bearasay, Eigg and Muck, and the Sanda Islands (Argyll and Bute). However, the combined population of all these islands is thought to be no more than 1,000 apparently occupied burrows.

 

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

UK Population estimate (AOS*)

n/a

n/a

299,678

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

n/a

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

For census results for individual countries and Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man see under relevant sections below.

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Distribution/abundance

The Seabird 2000 census provides the most comprehensive recent assessment of the distribution and abundance of breeding seabirds. Numbers of Manx shearwater found in different regions, and a map showing location and size of colonies, are provided in the Seabird 2000 Manx shearwater results page.

The locations sampled during the annual Seabird Monitoring Programme provide some information on distribution and are accessible via the Seabird Monitoring Programme online database.

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Annual abundance and productivity by geographical area

With reference to the regional accounts below please note the following:

Breeding abundance: graphs of abundance index with 95% confidence limits are only shown for a region where the trend produced has been deemed accurate (see methods of analysis). Where a trend was thought to be inaccurate, graphs of abundance at major colonies in a region may be shown instead, particularly if such colonies hold greater than 10% of the regional population, are monitored frequently and may thus help illustrate regional population fluctuations outwith national censuses. Occasionally, too few data have been collected regionally to produce either of these.

Productivity: graphs of productivity are only shown if analysis of breeding success data produced a significant result for regional and/or year effects (again see methods of analysis). If results were not significant, then a regional mean productivity value is given. However, on some occasions, too few data are available from which to provide a meaningful average. Furthermore, for 11 species where the quality of monitoring data available was considered high, population viability analysis was undertaken at the UK level and the results of this are also reported.

 

United Kingdom

Breeding abundance

The first comprehensive estimates of population size of Manx shearwater were obtained during the Seabird 2000 Census, when 300,000 pairs were estimated. Over 90% of the UK population is found on the islands of Rum in Scotland and on Skomer and Skokholm in Wales. Due to the logistical difficulty in monitoring this nocturnal and burrow-nesting species, little information exists from which to derive population trends since Seabird 2000, although the colony on Skomer was re-surveyed in 20111. However, census methods used in 1998 and 2011 differed markedly, introducing an element of uncertainty in the results (see 'Wales' tab for details). Bardsey Island, which hosts the third largest colony in the UK, was counted between 2014 and 2016 when an estimated 20,675 AOB were counted, showing an increase of 28% to the numbers recorded during Seabird 20002.

 

Productivity

manx-sw-uk-prod.jpg

Figure 1. Trend in breeding productivity (no. of chicks fledged per pair) of Manx shearwater in the UK, 1986–2018. Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

Because of the logistical difficulties involved, both in visiting remote islands and in collecting data from a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird, productivity is monitored at only a few Manx shearwater colonies in the UK (three colonies in Wales, two in Scotland and one in Northern Ireland). Analysis has shown that there is no statistically significant annual variation in productivity within the sampled colonies, with Manx shearwaters fledging an average of 0.62 chicks per breeding pair per year between 1986 and 2018.

 

Scotland

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

n/a

n/a

126,545

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

n/a

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

The first comprehensive estimates of population size of Manx shearwater in Scotland were obtained during the Seabird 2000 Census, when 126,545 AON were estimated. The majority of these (approximately 120,000 AON) were found on Rum with a further 4,803 AON in the next largest concentration on the island group of St Kilda. Due to the logistical difficulty in monitoring this nocturnal and burrow-nesting species, no information exists on population trends at these two largest colonies since Seabird 2000. The Treshnish Isles (1,283 AON) were the only other colonies holding over one thousand pairs. The Treshnish Isles were re-surveyed in 2018 when 1,992 AON were counted, an increase of 55%.

 

Productivity

Productivity data are currently collected on Rum, Canna and Sanday. Analysis for these colonies showed no statistically significant variation in average productivity between 1986 and 2018, with approximately 0.62 chicks fledged per AOS per year. On Canna, Manx shearwater used to be present in good numbers (1,500 AOB in the mid-1970s) but suffered very poor productivity due to predation by Brown rats Rattus norvegicus and, by 2000, had been virtually wiped out3,4. Following rat eradication in 20065, the first nesting shearwater was detected in 2009, but by 2018 this had grown to only two nests. However, productivity has increased from an average of 0.6 in the 1980s to 0.74 in 20176 and 0.76 chicks fledged per pair in 20187.

The shearwater colony on Rum is subject to predation by a large population of brown rats. The impact of this predation is unclear and it is not known whether the colony is stable or declining8. Productivity in study plots on Rum was an average of 0.67 chicks per pair between 1986 to 2018.

 

England

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

n/a

n/a

367

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

n/a

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

At the time of the Seabird 2000 census, the relatively few Manx shearwaters breeding in England were located at several sites on the Isles of Scilly (201 AOS), and on the island of Lundy (166 AOS). A project to eradicate rats from Lundy, completed in spring 2004, appears to have benefited breeding Manx shearwaters, with a series of whole-island surveys showing a significant increase in the population since Seabird 2000; with 1,081 AOS in 2008, 3,451 AOS in 2013 and 5,504 AOB in 2018 – almost 15 times the English population found during Seabird 20009,10. A survey of the Isles of Scilly in 2015 found 439 AOS on the same islands counted during Seabird 2000, however an additional 84 AOS were also found at five other locations11, an increase of 160% since Seabird 2000.

 

Productivity

No systematic data on the productivity of Manx shearwaters in England have been submitted to the SMP.

 

Wales

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

n/a

n/a

168,133

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

n/a

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

Scotland and Wales together hold over 90% of the UK population of Manx shearwaters. The first comprehensive estimate of their population size in Wales was obtained during the Seabird 2000 census, when 101,800 pairs were estimated on Skomer, 46,200 pairs on Skokholm and a maximum of 16,183 pairs on Bardsey. Smaller colonies of 1,000–3,000 pairs were recorded on Middleholm and Ramsey. Until recently, little information existed on population trends. However, a census carried out in 2011 estimated the Skomer population to be 316,070 AOS1. This figure is greatly in excess of the estimate made just 13 years earlier and would require an increase of approximately 9% per annum, a very high value for a bird with a low reproductive rate (c. 0.65) and a long period of deferred maturity. Various reasons for the apparent increase (e.g. immigration, lowering of age of first breeding, estimation of response rate) were considered and thought unlikely. However, survey methods used in 1998 and 2011 differed markedly so it was concluded that the methods used in one (or both) of the surveys were sufficiently flawed to account for the difference, or part of it1. A census was undertaken on Bardsey Island between 2014 and 2016 when an estimated 20,675 AOB were counted, showing an increase of 28% to the number recorded during Seabird 20002.

 

Productivity

manx-sw-wales-prod.jpg

Figure 2. Trend in breeding productivity (no. of chicks fledged per pair) of Manx shearwater in Wales, 1986–2018. Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

Productivity data are currently collected mostly from colonies on Skomer (since 1991) and Bardsey (since 1996), with the addition of data from Skokholm since 2013. Since 1995, mean productivity in Wales has been relatively high but variable. Detailed monitoring and reporting has been undertaken on Skomer and highlights some problems faced by the shearwaters breeding there. Very low productivity was recorded between 1992 and 1994; the reasons for this are largely unknown although very wet weather in May 1993 (the poorest breeding season to date) flooded many burrows on Skomer. A lack of food may have affected productivity on Skomer in 2007 and 2008; annual comparison of chick growth and adult food provisioning behaviour found that birds bred later and chicks attained lower peak and fledging masses than in any previous recorded year dating back to 196512. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in parental attendance at the colony, which was probably the result of parents switching to a dual foraging strategy in 2007 and 2008. These events were linked to higher sea surface temperature in the preceding winter and to a reduction in prey quality, as indicated by the mean body mass of two-year-old herring12.

On Skomer in 2012, lack of food around hatching time was considered to have had the highest effect on productivity (0.41 fledged young per egg laid) although wet weather and the flooding of a small number of burrows may also have contributed. In 2014, the highest productivity was recorded since 1998 (0.71) but then began to decline to reach 0.45 in 2018, the second lowest figure since studies began in 1995 and the lowest since 2012. This is considerably lower than the five-year average of 0.59 (2014–2018) and the long-term 1991–2018 average of 0.5913. It is unknown what caused this low productivity on Skomer but it might be localised as productivity on Skokholm was in 2018 0.70, 0.10 lower than in 2017 (when a remarkable 0.80 chicks fledged per pair).

On Bardsey, flooding also reduced productivity in some parts of the study area in 2012, although this was compensated for by high values of success in drier areas. A greater threat on Bardsey were carrion crows Corvus corone which exploited accessible nest chambers in several years between 2002 and 2007 at least. In 2017 and 2018, productivity on Bardsey was poor at 0.65 and 0.60 chicks fledged per pair, respectively. In fact, in 2018 Manx shearwaters on Bardsey had the poorest breeding season since monitoring began in 1998 (18% lower than the mean (0.73 ±s.e.0.02). The previous lowest productivity was 0.61 in 2013, when the weather like in 2018 was also cold and generally poor through the spring. However, the main reason for low productivity might be that population size on Bardsey is reaching its maximum capacity, increasing competition for food and space which will also result in more new and inexperienced pairs breeding on the island2.

 

Northern Ireland

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

n/a

n/a

4,633

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

n/a

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

The first comprehensive estimates of population size of Manx shearwater in Northern Ireland were obtained during the Seabird 2000 census. Only two colonies are known, both on the Copeland Islands; Big Copeland was estimated to hold 1,766 AOS, with a further 2,867 AOS on nearby Lighthouse Island (total 4,633). The islands were re-surveyed in 2007, when 1,406 AOS were recorded on Big Copeland and 3,444 AOS on Lighthouse Island (total 4,850) indicating that numbers had changed little overall14. Changes at the respective islands between these two censuses (-20% on Big Island and +20% on Lighthouse) may be associated with logistical difficulties in surveying this nocturnal, burrow-nesting species.

 

Productivity

Productivity data were collected annually on Lighthouse Island, one of the Copeland Islands, between 2007 and 201315. On average 0.73 chicks were fledged per pair per year up to 2013. In 2018, a sample of 117 study burrows contained 31 chicks in August. If this number is assumed to be the number of fledged chicks, productivity would be 0.78 chicks per pair. Methods differed between years; therefore, this productivity estimate should be treated with caution16. No data from Lighthouse Island has been submitted to the SMP since 2013.

 

Republic of Ireland

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

n/a

n/a

32,545

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

n/a

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

During Seabird 2000, 32,545 pairs of Manx shearwater were recorded in the Republic of Ireland although several small colonies each probably holding a few hundred pairs were not surveyed. The main concentration of colonies was in the south-west on the offshore islands of County Kerry, several of which each held between 2,000–10,000 pairs. In County Galway, Cruagh held 3,286 pairs with small numbers on a couple of other islands. A few small colonies were recorded in counties Wexford and Dublin. Due to the logistical difficulty in monitoring this nocturnal and burrow-nesting species, no information exists as to population trends since Seabird 2000. The recent Republic of Ireland seabird census (2015–2018) did not publish data on Manx shearwater due to on-going survey work17.

 

Productivity

No systematic data on the productivity of Manx shearwaters in the Republic of Ireland have been submitted to the SMP. Thus, data is only available from Northern Ireland (see relevant section of report).

 

All Ireland

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

n/a

n/a

37,178

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

n/a

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

The first comprehensive estimates of population size of Manx shearwater for Ireland were obtained during the Seabird 2000 Census, when 37,178 pairs were estimated. The majority of these (approximately 33,000 pairs) were found in the Republic of Ireland where many colonies exist on offshore islands. In contrast, only two colonies are known in Northern Ireland, both on the Copeland Islands. During Seabird 2000, Big Copeland was estimated to hold 1,766 pairs with a further 2,867 pairs on nearby Lighthouse Island (total 4,633). The islands were re-surveyed in 2007, when 1,406 pairs were recorded on Big Copeland and 3,444 pairs on Lighthouse Island (total 4,850) indicating that numbers had changed little overall14. Changes at the respective islands between these two censuses (-20% on Big Island and +20% on Lighthouse) may be associated with logistical difficulties in surveying this nocturnal, burrow-nesting species. For the same reason, no other information exists as to population trends for the whole of Ireland since Seabird 2000. The recent Republic of Ireland seabird census (2015–2018) did not publish data on Manx shearwater due to on-going survey work17.

 

Productivity

No systematic data on the productivity of Manx shearwaters in the Republic of Ireland have been submitted to the SMP. Thus, data is only available from Northern Ireland where productivity has been monitored annually on Lighthouse Island, one of the Copeland Islands, between 2007 and 201314,15. On average 0.73 chicks were fledged per pair per year up to 2013. In 2018, a sample of 117 study burrows contained 31 chicks in August. If this number is assumed to be the number of fledged chicks, productivity would be 0.78 chicks per pair. Methods differed between years; therefore, this productivity estimate should be treated with caution16.

 

Isle of Man

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Isle of Man Census

(2017-18)

Population estimate (AOS*)

n/a

n/a

34

536

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

n/a

+1,576

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

The population of Manx shearwaters on the Isle of Man is small and confined to the Calf of Man; during Seabird 2000 only 34 AOS were recorded. In 2005, tape playback methods obtained responses from 104 burrows and 91 burrows were found to be occupied in 2010. Since the completion of a rat eradication programme during autumn and winter of 2012/13, the population has increased substantially; counts of apparently occupied burrows between 2015 and 2018 recorded 464, 265, 400 and 536 in each year respectively18.

 

Productivity

No systematic data on the productivity of Manx shearwaters on the Isle of Man have been submitted to the SMP.

 

Channel Islands

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

n/a

55

10

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

-82

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

Numbers have declined from 55 AOS records during the Seabird Colony Register to 10 AOS during the Seabird 2000 census. During the Channel Island Seabird Census of 2015, several burrows were identified that may have been occupied in the traditional breeding area on the island of Jethou and, in 2016, Manx shearwaters were heard calling over Burhou, Alderney. Further survey work is, therefore, required to ascertain the current size of the Manx shearwater population19.

 

Productivity

No systematic data on the productivity of Manx shearwaters on the Channel Islands have been submitted to the SMP.

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UK phenology, diet, survival rates

Phenology

No systematic data on phenology (timing of life-cycle events) have been collected as part of the SMP.

 

Diet

No data on diet have been collected as part of the SMP.

 

Survival rate

Figure 3 shows the annual estimated adult survival rate of breeding Manx shearwaters on Skomer, the only colony at which this parameter is monitored in the UK. Adult survival since 1994 shows an increase between 1994 and 2000, then a decline to 2015 (to the same value as 1994) followed by an increase to 201813. The survival rate for adult breeding Manx shearwaters at Skomer from 2016 to 2017 was 0.87%, slightly above the study average (1978–2016: 0.86) and the average since the study became more robust in 1992 (1992–2016): 0.88. As reported previously, these survival estimates are low, both in comparison with more detailed studies carried out in the 1960s and 70s on Skokholm (when productivity was 93-96% and 94%, respectively) and with what might be expected for a species with such a low reproductive rate20,21.

 

Manx shearwater adult survival Skomer.jpg

Figure 3. Estimated adult survival rate of Manx shearwaters on Skomer, 1986–2017.

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References

1 Perrins, C.M., Wood, M.J., Garroway, C.J., Boyle, D., Oakes, N., Revera, R., Collins, P. and Taylor, C. 2012. A whole-island census of the Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus breeding on Skomer Island in 2011. Seabird, 25, 1–13.

2 Perfect, E. 2019. Manx shearwater studies. In: A. John, ed. Bardsey Bird Observatory Report – A review of the wildlife of Bardsey Island in 2018, 160-173. Unpublished Bardsey Bird and Field Observatory report

3 Luxmoore, R., Swann, R. and Bell, E. 2019. Canna seabird recovery project: 10 years on. In: C.R. Veitch, M.N. Clout, A.R. Martin, J.C. Russell and C.J. West, eds. Island Invasives: Scaling up to meet the challenge, 576–579. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

4 Swann, R.L. 2005. Canna seabird studies 2003, JNCC Report, 361. Peterborough. UK.

5 Bell, E., Boyle, D., Floyd, K., Garner-Richards, P., Swann, B., Luxmoore, R., Patterson, A. and Thomas, R. 2011. The ground-based eradication of Norway rats Rattus norvegicus from the Isle of Canna, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. In: C. R. Veitch, M. N. Clout and D. R. Towns, eds. Island Invasives: Eradication and Management. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

6 Swann, R.L., Aiton, D.G., Call, A., Foster, S., Graham, A., Graham, K. and Young, A. 2017. Canna seabird studies 2017. Unpublished JNCC Report.

7 Swann, R.L., Aiton, D.G., Call, A., Call, F., Foster, S., Graham, A., Graham, K and Young, A. 2018. Canna seabird studies 2018. Unpublished JNCC Report.

8 Lambert, M., Carlisle, S. and Cain I. 2015. The role of brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) predation in determining breeding success of Manx shearwaters (Puffinus puffinus) on Rum. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report, No. 697.

9 Brown, A., Price, D., Slader, P., Booker, H., Lock, L. and Deveney, D. 2011. Seabirds on Lundy: their current status, recent history and prospects for the restoration of a once important bird area. British Birds, 104, 139–158.

10 Booker, H., Price, D., Slader, P., Frayling, T., Williams, T. and Bolton, M. 2019. Seabird recovery on Lundy population change in Manx Shearwaters and other seabirds in response to the eradication of rats. British Birds, 112, 217–230.

11 Heaney, V., and St Pierre, P. 2017. The status of seabirds breeding in the Isles of Scilly 2015/2016. Isles of Scilly Seabird Recovery Project Report 2015. Unpublished RSPB Report.

12 Riou, S., Gray, C.M., Brooke, M.d.L., Quillfeldt, P., Masello, J.F., Perrins, C. and Hamer, K.C. 2011. Recent impacts of anthropogenic climate change on a higher marine predator in western Britain. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 422, 105–112.

13 Stubbings, E.M., Büche, B.I., Riordan, J.A., Baker, B. and Wood, M.J. 2018. Seabird monitoring on Skomer Island in 2018. Unpublished Report to JNCC.

14 Stewart, J.R. and Leonard, K. 2007. Survey of the Manx Shearwater Breeding Populations on Lighthouse Island and Big Copeland Island in 2007.

15 Booth Jones, K. and Wolsey, S. 2019. Northern Ireland Seabird Report 2018. British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford.

16 Rhodes, K. 2017. MSc thesis: Ecological impact of rabbits and their role in providing nest sites for Manx Shearwaters, Lighthouse Island, Copelands, Northern Ireland. Queen’s University, Belfast.

17 Cummins, S., Lauder, C., Lauder, A. and Tierney, T. D. 2019. The Status of Ireland’s Breeding Seabirds: Birds Directive Article 12 Reporting 2013–2018. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 114. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Ireland.

18 Hill, R.W., Morris, N. G., Bowman, and K. A., Wright, D. 2019. The Isle of Man Seabird Census: Report on the census of breeding seabirds in the Isle of Man 2017-18. Manx BirdLife. Laxey, Isle of Man.

19 Veron, M. and Veron, C. 2016. Seabird Count 2015; monitoring the status of Guernsey’s Seabirds. La Société Transactions, Channel Islands.

20 Harris, M.P. 1966. Age of return to the colony, age of breeding and adult survival of Manx Shearwaters. Bird Study, 13(1), 84–95.

21 Perrins, C.M. Harris, M.P and Britton, C.K. 1973. Survival of Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus. Ibis, 115, 535–548.

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Partners

Data have been provided to the SMP by the generous contributions of its partners, other organisations and volunteers throughout Britain and Ireland. Partners to the SMP are: BirdWatch Ireland; The British Trust for Ornithology; UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Natural Resources Wales; Department of Environment, Food and Agriculture (Isle of Man); Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government (Republic of Ireland); States of Guernsey Government; JNCC; Manx Birdlife; Manx National Heritage; The National Trust; National Trust for Scotland; Natural England; Northern Ireland Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs; The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds; Scottish Natural Heritage; Seabird Group; Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Advisory Group; Scottish Wildlife Trust. More about the SMP partners >>

 

Image of Manx shearwater appears courtesy of Ian Rendall ©, is subject to international copyright law and may not be reproduced in any form whatsoever.

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Categories:

SMP Report 1986–2018

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