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Northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)

The following has been adapted from original text by Mark L. Tasker in Seabird Populations of Britain and Ireland (with permission from A&C Black, London).

 

Northern fulmars are one of the commonest seabirds in northern Britain and are present year-round, with no pronounced migration after becoming adult. They usually nest on wide ledges near the top of cliffs, but will also nest on more gently sloping land, under boulders and in puffin burrows on islands free from mammalian predators. They feed at sea on a variety of foods ranging from zooplankton and small fish to offal and discards produced by commercial fishing. Consequently, they are ubiquitous companions of fishing vessels in northern waters.

An increase in food discarded by commercial fishing has been suggested as a contributing factor to the spectacular growth in numbers and distribution of northern fulmars in Britain and Ireland and the North Atlantic. Prior to the mid-18th century, they bred in only one or two colonies in Iceland and in St Kilda (Western Isles). They then expanded their breeding range around the coast of Iceland and onto the Faeroe Islands and in 1878, formed a second British colony on Foula (Shetland). Subsequently, they have spread around Britain and Ireland and NW Europe and across the Atlantic to Canada. Throughout most of the 20th century numbers rapidly increased but during the last 15 years of the century this rise ceased with declines recorded in some areas.The environmental change which is most likely to have affected northern fulmars since the 1970s has come from a decline in the North Sea whitefish industry and a corresponding decline in the amount of offal discharged from its fleets – a trend which is likely to continue. Declines in the abundance of natural prey such as sandeels in the North Sea and of certain species of zooplankton in the North Atlantic, are also likely to have had a detrimental effect on the population. Climate change is likely to have contributed to these declines. Large numbers of northern fulmars may also still be caught and killed accidentally by the long-lining fleets in the Norwegian Sea and in the North Atlantic.

Conservation status

Northern fulmar is currently identified as a conservation priority in the following:

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International importance

UK Population

Biogeographic Population

% World Population

501,600 AOS*

14.8 (ssp. glacialis)

8.0

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

The UK population figure (rounded to the nearest hundred) was derived from data in Mitchell, P.I., Newton, S.F., Ratcliffe, N. and Dunn, T.E. (eds.) 2004. Seabird Populations of Britain and Ireland. Poyser, London. This was also the source of figures for the Biogeographic and World populations.

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UK population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

There was almost total survey coverage during Seabird 2000 with only a few gaps, notably Sula Sgeir (Western Isles). This was an improvement on both previous censuses, especially on Operation Seafarer (1969-70) when some large sections of coastline were covered rapidly or late in the breeding season.

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

UK Population estimate (AOS*)

291,294

516,939

501,609

% change since previous census   

n/a

+77

-3

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

For census results for individual countries and Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man see under relevant sections below.

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Distribution/abundance

The Seabird 2000 census provides the most comprehensive recent assessment of the distribution and abundance of breeding seabirds. Numbers of Northern fulmar found in different regions, and a map showing the location and size of colonies, is provided in the Seabird 2000 Northern fulmar results page.

The locations sampled during the annual Seabird Monitoring Programme provide some information on distribution and are accessible via the Seabird Monitoring Programme online database.

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Annual abundance and productivity by geographical area

With reference to the regional accounts below please note the following:

Breeding abundance: graphs of abundance index with 95% confidence limits are only shown for a region where the trend produced has been deemed accurate (see methods of analysis). Where a trend was thought to be inaccurate, graphs of abundance at major colonies in a region may be shown instead, particularly if such colonies hold greater than 10% of the regional population, are monitored frequently and may thus help illustrate regional population fluctuations outwith national censuses. Occasionally, too few data have been collected regionally to produce either of these.

Productivity: graphs of productivity are only shown if analysis of breeding success data produced a significant result for regional and/or year effects (again see methods of analysis). If results were not significant, then a regional mean productivity value is given. However, on some occasions, too few data are available from which to provide a meaningful average. Furthermore, for 11 species where the quality of monitoring data available was considered high, population viability analysis was undertaken at the UK level and the results of this are also reported.

 

United Kingdom

Breeding abundance

northern-fulmar-uk-ab.jpg

Figure 1. Trend in UK abundance index (solid line) of northern fulmar 1986–2018 with 95% confidence limits (dotted lines). Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

Census results indicate a large increase between 1969-70 (291,000 pairs) and 1985-88 (517,000 pairs), with numbers then stable up to 1998–2002. The causes of long-term increase in the UK northern fulmar population is the subject of debate; some suggest an increase in food supplied by man1 – formerly by waste from whaling fleets and later offal from trawling – while others suggest oceanographic changes2, or even a genetic change in the population3. Indeed, recent declines in the abundance index may in part be due to declines in offal from trawlers, representing a 're-adjustment' to more natural levels following a period of artificially elevated population size.

The new EU Common Fisheries Policy came into effect in 2014. It included the obligation that all catches of regulated commercial species had to be landed and counted against quota. From 2015 to 2019, the landing obligation was phased in across the majority of EU fisheries. This is likely to impact on seabird populations that feed on discards. Species native to the north-east Atlantic that are currently extensively exploiting fishery discards are kittiwake, herring gull, lesser black-backed gull, great black-backed gull, great skua, northern fulmar and the northern gannet4.

The majority of offal or small fishes discarded by whitefish trawlers was eaten by fulmars in Shetland and the North Sea5,6, and it is generally assumed that fulmars rely heavily on discarding in southerly latitudes. However, the spatial overlap between fulmars and commercial fisheries is far from complete7, and while it is indisputable that northern fulmars are major consumers of fishery waste in the southern part of their range, the extent to which their distribution is or was, constrained by the availability of this resource is debatable.

Data collected by the SMP suggest the abundance of fulmars breeding in the UK reached a peak in 1996 (Figure 1) but appears to have been declining since then although there is some fluctuation around the turn of the century and more recently in 2016. The index for 2018 (38% below the baseline) is the lowest value recorded since the index began in 1986.

Table 1 below shows how numbers have changed at some of the most important UK colonies (those in the SPA network) in the period since they were surveyed for Seabird 2000. Numbers have fallen in all areas although the greatest declines appear to be at colonies in the north and west of the UK.

Northern fulmars are caught accidentally by long-line and coastal gillnet-fishery in waters of the NE Atlantic. For example, in Norwegian waters Baerum et al (2019)8 estimated that around 1,300 fulmars per annum were caught by their coastal gill-net fishery - a fishing method not normally associated with high levels of bycatch of surface-feeding species such as fulmar. Estimates of the number caught in the Norwegian demersal longline fisheries vary; one recent study estimated that around 300 fulmars over a three-year period were caught9, much lower than a slightly earlier estimate that was based on a much smaller sample size10. There has been no recent or comprehensive assessment of seabird bycatch in the UK but estimates are to be published in Spring 2020 as part of the draft UK Plan of Action on Seabird Bycatch, currently being developed.

Reductions in sandeel abundance and changes to plankton communities11,12, probably caused by increases in sea surface temperature, are also likely to be responsible for recent fulmar declines.

 

Table 1. Recent counts of the number of northern fulmar (AOS) recorded in SPAs in Britain and Ireland compared to the number recorded in them during Seabird 2000. The percentage that each colony has changed by, and the per annum change, is also provided. (Note: data for Hermaness and North Rona relate to only part of the respective SPAs).

Area

SPA Name

Seabird 2000

Count (Year)

Change (%)

per annum

Shetland

Hermaness NNR

13,958 1999

12,228 2016

-12

-0.8

Shetland

Noss

4,999 1998

5,092 2016

+2

+0.1

Shetland

Foula

21,106 2000

8,438 2016

-60

-5.9

Shetland

Fair Isle

20,424 2000

32,061 2016

+57

+2.7

Orkney

West Westray Cliffs

4,027 1999

677 2007

-83

-20.0

Orkney

Copinsay

2,054 1999

1,685 2015

-18

-1.2

Orkney

Hoy

31,596 1999

19,586 2007

-38

-3.9

East Coast

Troup, Pennan and Lion's Heads

2,900 2001

1,828 2017

-37

-2.8

East Coast

Buchan Ness to Collieston Coast

1,976 2001

1,389 2007

-30

-5.7

East Coast

Fowlsheugh

352 1999

157 2018

-55

-4.2

East Coast

Flamborough Head and Bempton Cliffs

1,360 2000

846 2017

-38

-2.8

Minches

North Rona

3,520 1998

1,438 2012

-59

-6.2

Minches

Handa

3,550 2000

1,423 2017

-60

-5.2

Minches

Mingulay and Berneray

10,020 1998

8,614 2014

-14

-0.9

Minches

Rathlin Island

2,032 1999

1,518 2011

-25

-1.5

North West

Flannan Isles

8,143 1998

2,263 2013

-72

-8.2

North West

Hirta, Dun, Soay & Stacs

63,283 1999

27,552 2015

-56

-5.1

Irish Sea

Lambay Island

585 1999

375 2015

-36

-2.7

 

Productivity

northern-fulmar-uk-prod.jpg

Figure 2. Trend in UK breeding productivity (no. of chicks fledged per pair) of northern fulmar 1986–2018. Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

Declines in productivity since the mid-1990s may have contributed to the observed population decline in abundance shown in Figure 1, although in a long-lived species that does not breed until it is nine years old, we would expect a greater lag-time for changes in breeding output to be reflected in population size. Indeed, because of this we may expect further declines in the population. Productivity appears to have declined since 1986 and was at its lowest in 2004 and 2007 although the exact reasons as to why are unknown. From 2008 onwards, northern fulmars have had more variable breeding seasons.

Analysis of the SMP dataset found that mean productivity of northern fulmars was 0.39 between 1986 and 2008, declining at a rate of 0.05 chicks per nest per year13. This equates to a decline in productivity of 11% over the study period. The quality of the dataset meant a change in productivity greater than 10% over 25 years would be detected with confidence. Using available life history information (population size, clutch size, age at first breeding and survival rates of different age classes) to parameterise population viability analysis, it was predicted that if this level of productivity (0.39) were maintained, northern fulmar abundance would decline by about 12% over 25 years. Since 2009 the index has fluctuated but has starting to climb again, albeit very slowly. Between 2016 and 2018, the number of chicks fledged per pair decreased from 0.46 to 0.40.

 

Scotland

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

285,067

504,640

485,852

% change since previous census   

n/a

+77

-4

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

northern-fulmar-scotland-ab.jpg

Figure 3. Trend in abundance index (solid line) of northern fulmar in Scotland, 1986–2018 with 95% confidence limits (dotted lines; drawing of upper limit restricted to preserve detail in the abundance index). Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

Scotland holds the majority of the UK population of northern fulmars (about 97% during the Seabird 2000 census) so it is unsurprising that the trend shown above matches closely the UK trend with the key feature being the protracted shallow decline evident since the mid to late 1990s. Longer term census results indicate a large increase between 1969-70 and 1985-88, which apparently continued beyond the Seabird Colony Register (SCR), although numbers had declined by the time of the Seabird 2000 census in 1998-2002. The probable causes of their population increase and decrease, and current pressures affecting the Scottish population, are the same as those referred to in the UK section. The index in 2018 (43% below the baseline) is at its lowest point since monitoring began.

 

Productivity

northern-fulmar-scotland-prod.jpg

Figure 4. Trend in breeding productivity (no. of chicks fledged per pair) of northern fulmar in Scotland, 1986–2018. Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

The trend in productivity for Scotland closely matches that of the UK because much of the data have been collected at Scottish colonies. Comments under the UK section are thus also pertinent to Scotland – declines in productivity since the mid-1990s may have contributed to the observed fall in abundance since that time, although it should be noted that immature birds take approximately nine years to recruit into the breeding population. Since 2009 the index is fluctuating but starting to climb again, albeit very slowly. Heavy rain at several colonies is likely to have contributed to the decline in productivity observed in Scotland in 2015. Between 2016 and 2018, the number of chicks fledged per pair decreases from 0.46 to 0.40.

 

England

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

3,063

6,018

6,291

% change since previous census   

n/a

+96

+5

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

northern-fulmar-england-ab.jpg

Figure 5. Trend in abundance index (solid line) of northern fulmar in England, 1986–2018 with 95% confidence limits (dotted lines). Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

In England, northern fulmar numbers almost doubled between the first two national censuses but appeared to stabilise afterward. The distribution of northern fulmars in England is roughly split between the north-east and south-west (see Distribution section). However, most regular monitoring occurs in the north-east where several colonies have been counted annually up to 2018. Between the years 2000 and 2010, the index fluctuates with no discernible trend but then declines sharply to almost 50% below the 1986 baseline in 2014. Since then, the index has risen again although is still 30% below the baseline.

 

Productivity

northern-fulmar-england-prod.jpg

Figure 6. Trend in breeding productivity (no. of chicks fledged per pair) of northern fulmar in England, 1986–2018. Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

The productivity of northern fulmars in England shows no clear trend over time. Levels are generally moderate to high and seldom fall below 0.40. In 2018, productivity was 0.42, lower than the long-term average of 0.48 chicks fledged per pair per year between 1986–2018.

 

Wales

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

925

2,741

3,474

% change since previous census   

n/a

+196

+27

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

northern-fulmar-wales-ab.jpg

Figure 7. Trend in abundance index (solid line) of northern fulmar in Wales, 1986-2018 with 95% confidence limits (dotted lines; drawing of upper limit restricted to preserve detail in the abundance index). Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

The abundance index of northern fulmars in Wales shows an increasing trend at least up to the mid-1990s. The steady decline in abundance evident for the UK and Scotland starting around the mid to late 1990s is absent, with the index being relatively stable until 2005. However, thereafter a noticeable decline occurs up to 2009 after which abundance has been more or less stable again. The long-term change shows that numbers have increased markedly since Operation Seafarer; the population during 1998-2002 was almost four times that recorded in 1969-70.

 

Productivity

northern-fulmar-wales-prod.jpg

Figure 8. Trend in breeding productivity (no. of chicks fledged per pair) of northern fulmar in Wales, 1986-2018. Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

Although few data are available until 1992, productivity in Wales has on average been higher than in Scotland and England over the same period. However, productivity in Wales has declined between 2005 and 2009 closer to that recorded in Scotland. From 2009 onwards productivity rose again until 2014, however, it fell in 2015 to its lowest value recorded (0.23 chicks fledged per pair) and is currently in decline again after a short recovery in 2016. The reasons for this decline in productivity are unknown.

 

Northern Ireland

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

2,239

3,540

5,992

% change since previous census   

n/a

+58

+69

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

The Seabird 2000 census recorded 5,992 AOS in Northern Ireland, 69% more than the previous SCR census which found 3,540 AOS. Few colonies are monitored annually so it is difficult to draw conclusions as to the population trend since Seabird 2000. However, in 2018, extensive survey work resulted in data submitted from 25 colonies which held a total of 624 AOS, 61% fewer than recorded at the same colonies during Seabird 2000 (1,615 AOS). Rathlin Island, not part of the suite of colonies surveyed in 2018, is the largest and most important colony in Northern Ireland, holding almost 60% of the country’s total population during Seabird 2000. A large decline occurred there between 1999 and 2007 with whole-colony counts revealing a 47% fall from 2,032 to 1,072 AOS, although a repeat survey in 2011 found 1,518 AOS, but still 25% fewer than in 1999. The exact reasons for these large changes at Rathlin are unknown but it is possible, given the subsequent increase between 2007 and 2011, that numbers in 2007 were unusually low due to other reasons (e.g. a non-breeding event). Obviously, numbers in Northern Ireland are falling but estimating the size of the decline accurately is problematic given the lack of more recent data from Rathlin.

 

Productivity

Data submitted to the SMP on the productivity of northern fulmars in Northern Ireland are sparse; thus, no meaningful average productivity value can be provided.

 

Republic of Ireland

Population estimates and change 1969–2018 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Republic of Ireland Census (2015-18)

Population estimate (AOS*)

17,080

16,975

32,918

32,899

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

n/a

0

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

National census data indicate that numbers of northern fulmar were stable between Operation Seafarer and the Seabird Colony Register but then almost doubled by Seabird 2000. The recent Republic of Ireland seabird census (2015–2018) recorded a total of 32,899 pairs (at 120 sites), almost equal to the 32,918 AOS counted during Seabird 200014.

 

Productivity

Northern fulmar productivity in the Republic of Ireland is falling but estimating the trend of the decline accurately is problematic given the lack of more recent data. On average, 0.36 chicks were fledged per pair per year between 2006 and 2015.

 

All Ireland

Population estimates and change 1969–2002 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Population estimate (AOS*)

19,319

20,515

38,910

% change since previous census   

n/a

+6

+90

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

For the whole of Ireland, northern fulmar numbers were relatively stable between Operation Seafarer and the Seabird Colony Register but then almost doubled by Seabird 2000. The recent Republic of Ireland seabird census (2015–2018) recorded a total of 32,899 pairs, almost equal to that counted during Seabird 2000 (32,918 AOS)14. However, it is difficult to draw conclusions as to the population trend since Seabird 2000 in Northern Ireland. Rathlin Island, which held almost 60% of the country’s total population during Seabird 2000 has not been surveyed since 2011, when it hosted 25% fewer AOS than in 1999. Based on 25 sample sites being counted in 2018, numbers in Northern Ireland might be falling, but estimating the size of the decline accurately is problematic given the lack of more recent data from Rathlin. The Republic of Ireland held the majority of the all-Ireland population of northern fulmars (about 85% during Seabird 2000) therefore suggesting that northern fulmar numbers might be stable or slightly decreasing across Ireland.

 

Productivity

Data submitted to the SMP on the productivity of northern fulmars in all-Ireland are sparse; thus, no meaningful average productivity value can be provided.

 

Isle of Man

Population estimates and change 1969–2018 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1985-88)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Isle of Man Census
(2017-18)

Population estimate (AON/AOS*)

586

2,463

3,147

1,095

% change since previous census   

n/a

+320

+28

-65

*AON/AOS = Apparently Occupied Nests / Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

northern-fulmar-iom-ab.jpg

Figure 9. Abundance of northern fulmar on the Calf of Man, 1986–2017.

 

In common with other regions, the northern fulmar population on the Isle of Man increased hugely after Operation Seafarer. An increase of 320% occurred between 1969-70 and 1985-88 with another less dramatic increase of 28% between 1985-88 and 1998–2002. After Seabird 2000, data are available only from a few small colonies. However, the trend derived from the colonies sampled between census periods does not match the change in the Isle of Man population that is known to have occurred (e.g. from census data). The largest colony counted regularly is the Calf of Man, where numbers have fluctuated, particularly in the late 1990s and between 2010–2012. Since then, there appears to have been a decline with numbers in 2014 and 2015 (both 50 AOS) at their lowest since 1986. In 2017, as very slight increase to 54 AOS occurred15.

 

Productivity

northern-fulmar-iom-prod.jpg

Figure 10. Trend in breeding productivity (no. of chicks fledged per pair) of northern fulmar on the Isle of Man, 1986–2014. Based on SMP data; view the methods of analysis.

 

Northern fulmar productivity on the Isle of Man has fluctuated greatly over the recording period. However, within this variation there does appear to be a declining trend in productivity since the mid-1990s at least. Productivity was very low in 1995, 2003, 2006, 2008 and from 2012 to 2014. In 1995, an unknown proportion of chicks died from heat stress during a hot and dry summer, and in 2012 low productivity was probably due to high rainfall during June and July. The reasons for low productivity in other years are unknown. From 2015 to 2018, no productivity data on northern fulmar were submitted to the SMP.

 

Channel Islands

Population estimates and change 1969–2016 (census data)

 

Operation Seafarer    

(1969-70)

Seabird Colony Register    

(1984-85)

Seabird 2000    

(1998–2002)

Channel Islands Census (2015-16)

Population estimate (AOS*)

0

200

317

330

% change since previous census   

n/a

n/a

+59

+4

*AOS = Apparently Occupied Sites

 

Breeding abundance

During Operation Seafarer, no northern fulmars were recorded on the Channel Islands despite extensive survey coverage. The first recorded breeding was in 1975, on Jersey and Alderney, with Guernsey colonised in 1985 and Sark in 1986. By the time of the Seabird Colony Register, at least 200 pairs were breeding. Seabird 2000 recorded a further increase, of 59%, with 317 AOS counted. In 2015, a Channel Island Seabird Census was carried out which recorded 330 AOS, a decline of 57% compared to Seabird 200016.

 

Productivity

Data submitted to the SMP on the productivity of northern fulmars in the Channel Islands are sparse; thus, no meaningful average productivity value can be given.

 

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UK phenology, diet, survival rates

No data have been collected as part of the Seabird Monitoring Programme.

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References

1 Fisher, J. 1952. The Northern Fulmar. Collins, London.

2 Salomonsen, F. 1965. Geographic variation of the Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) and zones of the marine environment in the North Atlantic. Auk, 85, 327-355.

3 Wynne-Edwards, V.C. 1962. Animal dispersion in relation to social behaviour. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.

4 Bicknell, A.W. J., Oro, D., Camphuysen, J.C. and Votier, S.C. 2013. Potential consequences of discard reform for seabird communities Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 649–658.

5 Hudson, A. V. and Furness, R. W. 1989. The behaviour of seabirds foraging at fishing boats around Shetland. Ibis, 131, 225–237.

6 Camphuysen, K. and Garthe, S. 1997. An evaluation of the distribution and scavenging habits of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in the North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54(4), 654-683.

7 Camphuysen, C.J., Calvo, B., Durinck, J., Ensor, K., Follestad, A., Furness, R.W., Garthe, S., Leaper, G., Skov, H., Tasker, M.L. and Winter, C.J. N. 1995. Consumption of discards by seabirds in the North Sea. Final Report EC DG XIV research contract BIOECO/93/10. NIOZ Rapport 1995,5, Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel.

8 Bærum, K.M., Anker-Nilssen, T., Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Fangel, K., Williams, T. and Vølstad, J.H. 2019. Spatial and temporal variations in seabird bycatch: Incidental bycatch in the Norwegian coastal gillnet-fishery. PLoS One, 14(3): e0212786.

9 Fangel, K., Bærum, K.M., Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Aas, Ø. and Anker-Nilssen, A.T. 2017.Incedental bycatch of northern fulmar in the small-vessel demersal longline fishery for Greenlad halibut in coastal Norway 2012-14. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 74(1), 332-342.

10 Fangel, K., Aas, Ø., Vølstad, J.H., Bærum, K.M, Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Nedreaas, K., Overvik, M., Wold, L.C. and Anker-Nilssen, T. 2015. Assessing incidental bycatch of seabird in Norwegian coastal commercial fisheries: Empirical and methodological lessons. Global Ecology and Conservation, 4, 127-136.

11 MacDonald, A., Heath, M. R., Edwards, M., Furness, R. W., Pinnegar, J. K., Wanless, S., Speirs, D.C. and Greenstreet, S.P.R. 2015. Climate driven trophic cascades affecting seabirds around the British Isles. Oceanography and Marine Biology. An Annual Review, 53, 55–80.

12 Kirby, R. R. and Beaugrand, G. 2009. Trophic amplification of climate warming. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276, 4095–4103.

13 Cook, A.S.C.P. and Robinson, R.A. 2010. How representative is the current monitoring of breeding success in the UK? BTO Research Report, No. 573, BTO, Thetford.

14 Cummins, S., Lauder, C., Lauder, A. and Tierney, T. D. 2019. The Status of Ireland’s Breeding Seabirds: Birds Directive Article 12 Reporting 2013 – 2018. Irish Wildlife Manuals, 114. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Ireland.

15 Hill, R.W., Morris, N. G., Bowman, and K. A., Wright, D. 2019. The Isle of Man Seabird Census: Report on the census of breeding seabirds in the Isle of Man 2017-18. Manx BirdLife. Laxey, Isle of Man.

16 Veron, M. and Veron, C. 2016. Seabird Count 2015; monitoring the status of Guernsey’s Seabirds. La Société Transactions, Channel Islands.

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Partners

Data have been provided to the SMP by the generous contributions of its partners, other organisations and volunteers throughout Britain and Ireland. Partners to the SMP are: BirdWatch Ireland; The British Trust for Ornithology; UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Natural Resources Wales; Department of Environment, Food and Agriculture (Isle of Man); Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government (Republic of Ireland); States of Guernsey Government; JNCC; Manx Birdlife; Manx National Heritage; The National Trust; National Trust for Scotland; Natural England; Northern Ireland Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs ; The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds; Scottish Natural Heritage; Seabird Group; Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Advisory Group; Scottish Wildlife Trust. More about the SMP partners >>

 

Northern fulmar image appears courtesy of Ian Rendall ©, is subject to international copyright law and may not be reproduced in any form whatsoever.

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SMP Report 1986–2018

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