Status: Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ)
Swallow Sand MCZ is situated in the northern North Sea where the offshore seabed is sandy with some coarser gravel and muddy patches.
Situated in the northern North Sea, Swallow Sand MCZ is located where the offshore seabed is sandy with some coarser gravel and muddy patches.
The site is low energy, providing a stable sediment habitat supporting a diverse range of marine species including worms, brittlestars, bivalves and gastropods.
More detailed site information can be found in the Summary section below.
Map displaying the Swallow Sand MPA boundary and associated protected feature data. Visit JNCC's MPA Mapper to further view and explore data for this MPA.
Legislation behind the designation: Marine and Coastal Access Act (2009)
|Subtidal coarse sediment
|North Sea glacial tunnel valley
Specific information on the conservation objectives relating to this site is provided in the Conservation Advice section.
The acquisition of new data may result in updates to our knowledge on feature presence and extent within this site. The most up-to-date information is reflected on the map on this page and in JNCC’s MPA Mapper and the evidence underpinning this can be viewed in the Monitoring and Evidence section.
The diagram below is a summary of the key milestones involved in the selection and designation of Swallow Sand MCZ. More detail can be found in the Relevant Documentation section.
The documents referred to below and any other historical documents relating to Swallow Sand MCZ were produced during the selection and designation process and therefore may be out of date. This Site Information Centre is the most up-to-date source of information for this MPA, and will reflect any additional information gathered since these documents were produced. Further information about the Marine Conservation Zone site selection process and historic MCZ advice is available on JNCC's MCZ webpages.
- Swallow Sand MCZ factsheet, map and Designation Order – includes the official description of the site designation under the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009. The Designation Order includes boundary co-ordinates, Conservation Objectives and a list of the designated features.
- Site Summary Document – a high-level summary of the key attributes of the site including boundaries, maps and descriptive text, produced as part of the site designation consultation package.
- JNCC's formal conservation advice for this site is available in the Conservation Advice section.
These documents are available on JNCC's Resource Hub.
Last updated: October 2017
Information for this site summary was adapted from documents listed in the Relevant Documentation section and incorporates any further information gathered since these documents were produced.
Swallow Sand MCZ is located in the northern North Sea region, approximately 100 km offshore from the Northumberland coast. Subtidal sand is the most abundant feature, with evidence of patches of coarse and mixed sediments as well as mud. It is the largest site designated in the first Tranche of MCZs, with depths ranging from approximately 50 m to 100 m and a drop down to 150 m in the channel described as Swallow Hole Glacial Tunnel Valley, situated in the north-west corner of the site.
This sediment habitat is characteristic of those found in offshore waters deeper than 30 m, experiencing low tidal stress and constituting a relatively stable habitat that supports a diverse range of marine flora and fauna due to the low energy environment, which is illustrated in the EUSeaMap 'energy due to currents' layer. Following the 2012 MCZ site verification survey, analysis was completed by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and Seastar Surveys Ltd in 2014, in order to further quantify feature extent and assign biotopes to the site.
The three main elements of the site are sand, coarse sediment, and mud. The analysis resulted in approximate proportions of 80% sand, 12% mud and 8% gravel. The community analysis assigned biotopes to the features within the boundary. Four EUNIS Level 3 biotopes were established as well as four EUNIS Level 4 sub-biotopes. A newly established biotope was also described including Ditrupa arietina, an annelid worm found in samples across the site. Further detail on the evidence for this MCZ can be found in the Monitoring and Evidence section.
Site location: Co-ordinates for this MCZ can be found in the Site Summary Document, listed in the Relevant Documentation section.
Site area: Swallow Sand MCZ is a relatively large site in terms of MCZ designations, with an area of 4,746 km2. This is approximately the same area as that of its neighbouring county, Northumberland.
Site depth range: Depth range in this MCZ is approximately 50–150 m (within the Swallow Hole Glacial Tunnel Valley feature) below sea-level.
Charting Progress 2 Biogeographic Region: Region 1 – Northern North Sea.
Site boundary description: The boundary for Swallow Sand MCZ is a simple rectangle, set to include the geomorphological feature 'Swallow Hole' and broad-scale habitats that encompass coarse and sandy sediment ecosystems. The original site initially proposed included over 15,500 km² of subtidal sand, with almost half encroaching on the Dogger Bank SAC. This overlap was deemed unnecessary therefore a significant reduction in size was applied to form Swallow Sand MCZ as it is now presented, no longer encroaching into the Dogger Bank SAC area.
Monitoring and Evidence
Last updated: November 2023
The full overview of the data used to support site identification, along with information on confidence in feature presence and extent is available in JNCC's 2013 Post-Consultation Advice. JNCC will be adding relevant survey data for this MPA to its MPA interactive map in due course. Some of the data for this MCZ has been collected through JNCC-funded or collaborative surveys and some through other means. Data from these surveys provide direct evidence confirming the presence of the protected features within the site.
Survey and data gathering
- CEND0118 and CEND0218 Survey Report: Swallow Sand Marine Conservation Zone (2018) – In 2018, Cefas and JNCC surveyed the Swallow Sand Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ), to collect a benthic dataset that would form the first monitoring event in a 'Before-After-Control-Impact' (BACI) study, to allow for the future evaluation of the effectiveness of proposed fisheries management measures at the site.
- Swallow Sand MCZ 2016 Survey Report (Version 3) (2016) – In May 2016, a survey was carried out at Swallow Sand Marine Conservation Zone on the RV Cefas Endeavour cruise CEND1016. The aim of the Swallow Sands MCZ survey was to gather the initial dataset of a site monitoring time-series, that will contribute information on the habitats found at this site to inform habitat specific assessments.
- Swallow Sand MCZ Verification Survey (2014) – JNCC collaborated on further targeted data collection at Swallow Sand MCZ as part of a combined MPA survey with Cefas. Additional ground-truthing in the form of video and still images were collected to increase the evidence base for presence and extent of features.
- Swallow Sand MCZ Verification Survey (2012) – JNCC collaborated on an MCZ verification survey with Cefas to Swallow Sand MCZ funded through the MB0120 Defra data collection programme and MB0129 Defra data and evidence coordination programme. Video, still images and acoustic data were collected across the site extent. The post-survey report covers both the 2012 and 2014 surveys and is available to download from Defra’s website.
- Accessing and developing the required biophysical datasets and data layers for Marine Protected Areas network planning and wider marine spatial planning purposes (2009) – JNCC collaborated on a literature review led by ABPMer and a consortium of collaborators, resulting in evidence for the geological feature protected within Swallow Sand MCZ.
Data analysis reports
- Swallow Sand Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ) Monitoring Report (2016) – This report includes recommendations that inform continual improvement and development of sample acquisition, analysis and data interpretation for future survey and reporting. Site and feature specific indicator metrics are not currently defined for this site. Potential indicators, where identified, will be evaluated and considered for inclusion in recommendations for future reporting.
- Swallow Sand MCZ Post-survey Site Report (2016) – This report provides an interpretation of the survey data collected by the above collaborative surveys with Cefas and JNCC at Swallow Sand MCZ site during May 2012 and March 2014.
- Community analysis of Swallow Sand data (2014) – JNCC contracted Seastar Survey Ltd to complete a community analysis of offshore MCZ grab and video data to establish biotopes. The following biotopes were assigned after multivariate analysis:
- SS.SMu.CFiMu.SpnMeg A5.361, Seapens and burrowing megafauna in circalittoral fine mud.
- SS.SSa.OSa.Dari A5.27x: Deep circalittoral muddy sand with Ditrupa arietina, a polychaete worm.
- SS.SSa.OSa.(MalDef) A5.271: Maldanid polychaetes and Eudorellopsis deformis in deep circalittoral sand or muddy sand
- SS.SMu.OMu.PjefThyAfil A5.376: Paramphinome jeffreysii, Thyasira spp. and Amphiura filiformis in offshore circalittoral sandy mud.
- EUNIS level 3 biotopes: SS.SSa.OSa A5.27: Deep circalittoral sand SS.SMu.OMu A5.37: Deep circalittoral mud. SS.SMu.CFiMu A5.36 Circalittoral fine mud & SS.SMx.CMx A5.44 Circalittoral mixed sediment.
Note that this biotope analysis solely relates to data gathered in 2012 and does not consider samples gathered more recently in 2014.
- Mapping seabed sediments of Swallow Sand and South-West Deeps (West) MCZs (2014) – JNCC contracted a report through the BGS in order to carry out geo-statistical analysis of sediment sample data from the MCZ verification survey of Swallow Sand MCZ.
- EUSeaMap 'phase 1 final report' (Cameron & Askew, 2011 and updated in 2012) – A predictive seabed habitat mapping report for European waters, offering supporting information on the presence and extent of Subtidal coarse sediment and Subtidal sand within Swallow Sand MCZ.
- Developing the necessary data layers for Marine Conservation Zone selection – Distribution of rock/hard substrate on UK Continental shelf (2010 ) – The British Geological Survey undertook survey work in the Southern North Sea including the location of Swallow Sand MCZ under the Defra MB0103 contract in order to produce a map of the potential distribution of rock and hard substrate. The sampling method was also suitable for establishing presence of other features, providing further evidence for the presence and extent of sediment within the site.
Additional relevant literature
References for further supporting scientific literature consulted during the identification of this site can be found in the annexes of our advice. Please be aware that although these sources contain information in relation to this MPA, they do not necessarily represent the views of JNCC.
As part of the UK Marine Monitoring and Assessment Strategy (UKMMAS), JNCC led the development of a UK Marine Biodiversity Monitoring Strategy, working with partners across the UK monitoring community. The Strategy spans UK territorial and offshore waters, focusing on biodiversity in the wider environment and within Marine Protected Areas. Its aim is to implement efficient, integrated monitoring of marine biodiversity to provide the evidence needed for all the UK's policy drivers.
The evidence collected during MPA monitoring surveys is used in combination with other available evidence to:
- Enable assessment of condition of the features within sites;
- Contribute to the assessment of the degree to which management measures are effective in achieving the conservation objectives for the protected features;
- Support the identification of priorities for future protection and/or management; and,
- Enable Government to fulfil its national and international assessment and reporting commitments in relation to MPAs and help identify where further action may be required.
More detail on offshore MPA monitoring can be found on the Offshore MPA monitoring webpage. A list of monitoring surveys and relevant reports can be found on the MPA monitoring survey reports webpage.
Last updated: March 2018
A period to comment regarding a change in the General Management Approach for Subtidal sand within Swallow Sand MCZ was run between 23 October and 4 December 2017. JNCC produced a summary of the response to comments received during this period, which is available in the following paper:
- 2017 Period to comment on a change in the General Management Approach for Subtidal sand in Swallow Sand Marine Conservation Zone
Defra has reviewed the advice provided by JNCC and confirmed the formal change in the Subtidal sand General Management Approach from 'Recover' to 'Maintain' within Swallow Sand MCZ. Please note: a GMA of Maintain does not preclude the need for management now or in the future. Please contact JNCC for further information.
Updated formal conservation advice is now available for this MPA. Further information on the approach used to develop this advice is available on the 'Conserving MPAs' webpage along with a Glossary of Terms used in JNCC's conservation advice and a short video explaining how to use the conservation advice packages.
You must refer to this advice if you:
- undertake an MCZ assessment for a plan or project that could impact the site;
- provide information for such an assessment;
- respond to specific measures to further the conservation objectives for the site; and
- consider the need to put new or additional management measures in place.
You may also find it useful to refer to this advice if you:
- carry out any other activity that could impact the site.
We will engage with stakeholders to identify any lessons which JNCC can learn from customers who have used the advice, with a view to continuing to ensure it is fit-for-purpose.
The following table provides an overview of the components of the conservation advice, and provides hyperlinks to each of the products for this MPA. These elements together form JNCC’s formal conservation advice for this site and should be read in conjunction with each other. This advice reflects the most up-to-date evidence held by JNCC (correct as of March 2018).
|Explains the purpose of the advice and when it must be referred to.
Supplementary Advice on the Conservation Objectives (SACO)
The Conservation Objectives set out the broad ecological aims for the site. JNCC provides supplementary advice in the SACO which is essential reading to support interpretation of these conservation objectives.
You can use these documents to assess the impacts of your planned activity on the important attributes of the site.
|Conservation Advice Statements
These statements provide a summary of the Supplementary Advice on the Conservation Objectives (SACO).
|Advice on Operations
Provides information on the activities capable of affecting site integrity and therefore achievement of the site’s conservation objectives.
This is a starting point for determining potential management requirements. It does not take into account the intensity, frequency or cumulative impacts from activities taking place. It is simply to advise you of the possible adverse impacts that your activity can have on a MPA’s features.Use the advice on operations to determine those pressures your activity causes that could harm the habitat and/or species features of the site.
These resources are available on JNCC's Resource Hub.
Activities and Management
Last updated: May 2022
Management status: Progressing towards being well managed.
Progress is ongoing with the recommendation of fisheries management proposals and ongoing site condition monitoring work will be required in order to conclude with confidence as to the degree to which the site is moving towards or achieving its conservation objectives.
This site forms part of the UK's contribution to the OSPAR Commission's network of MPAs. As the UK is a contracting party to the OSPAR Commission, JNCC is committed to ensuring that the OSPAR MPA network is well-managed.
JNCC considers well-managed to mean the timely progress of an MPA around the 'MPA management cycle'. This involves:
- The documentation of appropriate management information – conservation objectives, advice on activities capable of affecting the protected features of a site, and spatial information on the presence and extent of the protected features of a site.
- The implementation of management measures – management actions considered necessary to achieve the conservation objectives of a site.
- Site condition monitoring programmes – collecting the information necessary to determine progress towards a site's conservation objectives.
- Assessment of progress towards conservation objectives – using available information to infer whether or not a site is moving towards or has achieved its conservation objectives.
The sub-sections that follow provide an account of the progress of Swallow Sand MCZ around each of these four stages in the MPA management cycle.
1. The documentation of appropriate management information
- The conservation objectives and advice on activities capable of affecting the conservation status of the protected features of this site are available in the Conservation Advice section. Further information is available on our 'Conserving MPAs' webpage.
- Spatial information on the presence and extent of the protected feature of this MPA is available via JNCC's MPA Mapper.
- JNCC is in the process of developing downloadable MPA data packages where appropriate permissions to share datasets are in place.
2. The implementation of management measures
This section details progress towards the implementation of management measures for activities considered capable of affecting the conservation status of the protected features of the site. The protected features of the site are considered to be sensitive to pressures associated with fishing and 'licensable' activities.
- Vessel monitoring data indicates there are various types of demersal trawling occurring within the MCZ. Effort is concentrated in the north-west corner around the area identified as mud habitat. Some pelagic fishing is known to occur within the site, but the features of the site are not considered sensitive to fishing activity with no bottom contact. UK and non-UK registered vessels have been active in the area.
- The Marine Management Organisation (MMO) is the lead authority regarding the implementation of, and compliance with, any measures to managing fishing activity. Further information on progress is available via the MMO's webpages.
- There are three dormant pipelines and three oil wells within the boundary of Swallow Sand MCZ.
- Licensable activities such as oil and gas exploration and production taking place or that may take place within this MPA are managed in accordance with the clauses set out under Section 127 of the Marine & Coastal Access Act (2009). Under this clause, JNCC has a statutory responsibility to advise the regulator on developments that are capable of affecting (other than insignificantly) the protected features of the MPA and that may hinder the achievement of the sites conservation objectives. JNCC considers the existing marine licensing process is sufficient to ensure the management of licensable activities taking place, or that could take place in the future, on the protected features of this MPA.
- For further information please see The Marine Management Organisation's guidance on marine conservation zones and marine licensing.
- Further information on JNCC's role in the provision of advice for licensed activities in the UK offshore area is available on JNCC's offshore industry advice webpages.
- There is a low density of commercial shipping and cruising routes in this area and due to its offshore location, vessel anchorage is unlikely.
- Under international law (UNCLOS, Article 17), ships have a right of innocent passage at sea, including in areas designated as MPAs. The pressures associated with shipping activity within Swallow Sand MCZ are not considered likely to impact the protected features of the site.
- There is limited military activity in the south-west corner of the site.
- The MoD has incorporated all designated MPAs into their Environmental Protection Guidelines (Maritime) and wider Marine Environmental and Sustainability Assessment Tool. These guidelines are used to manage MoD activity to minimise the associated risks to the environment.
3. Site condition monitoring
A site condition monitoring survey took place in 2016 to form the first point in a monitoring time series which will be used to determine the rate and direction of change over time in the condition of the protected features of the site. Further information will be made available in the Monitoring and Evidence section in due course.
4. Assessment of progress towards conservation objectives
No long-term condition monitoring data are available to determine whether the MPA is moving towards or has reached its conservation objectives. The site has a ‘maintain’ conservation objective based on the findings of a vulnerability assessment (exposure to the activities associated with pressures to which the protected features of the site are considered sensitive). This suggests the site may already be achieving or moving towards its conservation objectives. Site condition monitoring time-series data would improve our confidence in this assessment.